Tool Steels - General Information

t is an alloyed or high-alloyed steel group used to turn the raw material into a product with various methods such as cutting, bending, forging, machining or chipless manufacturing of hot or cold workpieces.

We can list the common properties expected from all tool steels as follows.

  • Clean and homogeneous microstructure,
  • High wear resistance,
  • High tensile strength,
  • Sufficient yield strength,
  • Sufficient ductility,
  • high hardness,
  • high toughness,
  • Homogeneous hardness distribution after heat treatment,

Tool Steels, chemical composition, properties, application expected from them in their fields and working conditions. It is much more durable than other steel groups due to its characteristics. is rich in content. Mechanical, thermal, chemical and tribological primarily from tool and mold steels working under loads. expected properties, hardness (hot hardness / strength), wear strength and toughness. Diversity in use, fatigue and creep strength and oxidation and corrosion resistance. may highlight some of the features. Tool Steelsnden all the expected characteristics of the collective, the team in working conditions It prevents the mold from being deformed or broken. In accordance with the desired properties in the material microstructure in the direction of obtaining long life at the lowest possible wear developed.

The martensitic matrix has long been used in Tool Steels. is used, and due to its carrier role, this matrix has a high must harden. Matrix hardness in the quenched state primarily proportional to the amount of carbon, while tempered In this case, the role of carbide-forming elements becomes evident. Alloying and heat treatment according to the usage temperature in practice is changed to obtain the optimal application characteristic. For example, ledeburitic cold work Tool Steelsnde (1.2080, 1.2436) a small amount of chromium-rich mixed carbide in the matrix precipitates are sufficient for low temperature applications. High school In high speed steels operating at high temperatures, molybdenum and precipitation hardening with vanadium-rich mixed carbides tries to maximize. Likewise, chromium molybdenum and vanadium in the structure of hot work Tool Steels. changing the amounts of elements in certain proportions, the ability of the material to maintain its hardness at high temperature and It adds properties such as tempering resistance.

Tool Steels are classified according to their usage areas. All steels are close as produced by ingot metallurgy. with increasing amounts of powder metallurgical production method started to be produced. In alloying steels, heavily from carbide-forming elements for similar purposes is used. Various amounts of carbide With the use of builders, the amount of carbon can be set at a wide limit. changes within. In addition, toughness and tempering persistence in some steels due to nickel and cobalt additions. One thing all Tool Steels have in common is the martensitic transformation. are hardened. The difference between Tool Steels, different elements included in the structure to obtain the expected properties. type of carbide formed by alloying elements, amount and comes from its distribution.

Tool Steels are grouped into three main groups according to their usage areas.


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